A Light just appeared in my brain as I looked at the above responses… VV (or ^^) are Arabic Digits (77 or 88) and the % 0 . is “Hundredths 5 0” or .50 cal (50/100 inch); using the Arabic digits for 5 and 0 ( 0 and .) The “percent” sign is taken from Latin usage(Roman ) and whilst I don’t know if it was used by the ancient (ie, Middle ages) Arabs, it certainly is used today.
Various Latin abbreviations were developed during the Early Renaissance Period, as Mathematics and Accountancy was developing, especially with the adoption of the “Indo-Arabic Numbering system” and the use of the “0” (Zero or Cipher (Zifr in Arabic, meaning “nothing”). Ancient Roman Numeration did not have the Zero concept, and this hindered rapid calculation, both in Financial matters such as Interest, and in General (addition, subtraction, and Multiplication. The I,II,V and X system was laborious to operate.
The US system of the Hash (#) meaning “number of” comes from the 14th Century, and is a contraction of the abbreviation of “numero” (nr) in Medieval script. The Percentum sign has a similar origin (%), as do the Plus, Minus and Multipy and Divide signs. Given the Arabic and Italian/Latin interaction in the Middle ages in places such as Spain and southern Italy, and the Levant, there was a cross-cultural development of all these items necessary for efficient Trading, Monetary exchange, and scientific learning.
Algebra “Al gibr” Pebbles Calculus (Lat.) Calculations using Pebbles as counters. ( also “Gibr al Tarik” ==Gibraltar ( “Tarik’s Pebble” some Pebble!!!) also the Australian Slang and Desert Name…Gibber ( Gibber Desert) from the Afghan “stone or stoney”).
Alchemy Al Chem The Nature of metals and natural things Chemistry. The vast number of Arabic origin words and usages from the Renaissance period is astounding.