China adopted the Mauser M1907 Rifle in calibre 6,8x57, and had received part of its original Purchse by 1914, when Mauser’s production was re-directed to the War Effort, and undelivered Chinese rifles were re-bored to 7,9x57 for use Locally (Wurttemburg regiments).
The Chinese manufactured 6,8 ammo to supplement the DWM supplies which had dried up in late 1914, and by 1917, had decided to go with the 7,9 Mauser cartridge, as used in their “Hanyang” Rifle (7,9J, RN projectile.)
At the time, the Superintendant of the Hanyang Arsenal, General Liu, a western trained Engineer, had developed a Self Loading Rifle, based on pre-war Danish “Bang” designs ( Gas trap Muzzle system) using both the 6,8 cartridge and the 7,9 cartridge.
In the early 1920s, he visited Springfield Armory, with his rifles, which were tested in one of the many SA rifle trials of the period ( along with the early Pedersen, Garand and other designs.).
Nothing came of these trials, as far as Gen. Liu was concerned, because his rifle disappears from the horizon, both in the US and in China.
The FMJ Projectile of the 6,8, however, must have captured the imagination of both Winchester ( at the time involved in a lot of Ammo experimentation with SA ( through both Hatcher and Askins); and although Frankford Arsenal was developing a “28” Springfieldd cartridge ( effectively a 7mm/06…on the lines of the British P13 .276 cartridge or the .280 Ross)…it seems the ballistics of the 6,8 pill ( .277 diameter) caught on for Winchester, and in 1925, the .270 Winchester was born.
FMJ .270 projectiles: I have about 1000 of 120 and 140 grain NORMA .277 diameter FMJ projectiles, made in the 1960s, from the box label designs (maybe earlier); someone, somewhere was using a FMJ .270 for hunting or target shooting ( may be a Pelt& Meat Hunter, using “head-shots” so as not to damage an expensive pelt…or the meat underneath it.)
I have saved these to make my own 6,8x57 Mauser Cartridges, on a project rifle of M1907 design (have made the Dies, have a 1907 marked Mauser Commercial receiver, the bands etc are the same as a M904 Portuguese Vergueiro; Just need to Make/assemble a correct M04/07 Stock, and get a .270 cal barrel 29 inches long —could always make a M1907 Carbine…easier to get a Mauser threaded .270 Sporter barrel and recut threads and cut to length.).
Anyway, back to 1925 and the .270Win…Although I have no Documentary proof about the sequence of events beyond the Encounters of Liu, Askins and Hatcher, and the timings ( 1920-25), and the existence of a Liu rifle ( assembled by the Springfield Tool Room, under Liu’s supervision) in the SA collection,and that Both Hatcher and Askins were “consultants” for WRA in ammo matters, there you have it.
One other thing, the Chinese 6,8 cartridges are actually TWO, a 6,8x57 and a 6,8x60 (Woodin info); The latter, Longer necked case would have been more influential in a possible .270WIN design, as the 60mm cases more resembles the final Winchester cartridge. (6,8x64) (MY Musings)
If anybody has more info or documentary traces, please let us know.