洪=洪宪。元=元年。洪宪元年=1916 德州=德州北洋机器局=Dezhou Beiyang machinery bureau
Very interesting! Thanks a lot for posting.
Is the meaning of the two circles known?
Could be Reload marks ( Factory or Depot reloading was a German Characteristic of the Pre-War period, and I think the 1904 establishment of Dezhou plant had German Technical help, being in Shantung Province, a German Concession ( TsingTao) area.
Very nice finds…are they dug up from battlefields of the 1920s period???
Doc AV ( Fan Shi-de)
For reloads these are very exact 180° it seems.
Using machinery and aid from Germany, China adopted the German “7.9” designation for this caliber. By the way, in 1916 (first photo) its foreign name “7.92” had not yet been invented.