9mmP Case Production at H^N in 1944-Variations in Headstamps


I posted much of the following information on BOCN last week, and had quite a few readers, but no replies and a single PM. I decided to try it here to see if I have better luck! The BNOC post was as follows:

I have been collecting 9mm Luger/Para ammunition for about 60 years. Very early on I noted the great headstamp variation in the detail content of the British WWII ammunition. I assumed that it was just a result of the production volume and a lack of standards on the content of the headstamps resulting in the headstamps varying over time as old bunters were worn out and new ones produced. This variation occurs at both Hirwaun and Blackpole, but the variation was noticably wider at Hirwaun. An example is that the caliber designation was shown as 9M.M. or 9MM or 9 MM or 9 M M or 9M/M or 9 M/M. There was also considerable variation in letter size, the shape of the number “9” and other variations.

A few months ago I picked up a sealed box of Hirwaun production of Mk II cartridges from 1944. When I opened it, I was amazed at the variations in the headstamps. Of the 48 cartridges, there were 26 distinctly different headstamps which were made from distinctly different bunters. My old assumption that this was just lack of headstamp standards over time seem unlikely. The cases loaded and packed into this one box had to be available at the loading machines and were likely mostly produced in roughly the same time-frame. I am working now to try to categorize the differences so I can document them in some kind of reasonably understandable manner.

The Hirwaun production must have been a massive operation. I have no idea how many case production lines were running at the same time producing cases, but likely there were quite a few. Other factories have have used the load code on the box, or other methods to identify the date of loading as well as such things as the Quality Inspector, the Crew doing the production and/or the production line.

It may be that each crew had a set of headstamp bunters that identified them and the line they worked on. They could have installed their bunters at the beginning of each shift and removed them at the end of the shift. I am not claiming this is what happened, just offering it as one explanation of the diversity of headstamps in the single Hirwaun box. Unfortunately the date stamped on the box is unreadable.

Does anyone know how many 9mmP case production lines were running at Hirwaun at any one time in 1944???

I doubt there will ever be an answer to this variation, but would appreciate the thoughts of other Forum members.

Looking forward to your comments.

Here are some examples of the variations:

From Left to Right.

  1. Large letters, 9M?M, Small Arrow (tail significantly longer than diagonal lines)
  2. Small letters, 9M.M.,
  3. Large letters, 9MM
  4. 9MM without top & bottom bars on IIZ
  5. 9MM small 9, small letters-small arrow
  6. 9MM (staggered Ms), small arrow

And it goes on and on!!!

This box contains the production of 26 headstamp bunters. Somebody must have an explanation for that.

I would appreciate all thoughts and comments! Any ideas are welcome.



“Does anyone know how many 9mmP case production lines were running at Hirwaun at any one time in 1944???”

I’d think an answer to this above question would a good start to the nub of it. & I’d eliminate the “at any one time”

Another WA guess might be they were getting bunters made from various makers & perhaps not using hobs to any great degree? Doesn’t make a lot of sense perhaps, but this was war time & production numbers came first.

I can’t think of any other reason unless the bunters being made without any standardization control but the basic layout & information plus the physical & mechanical qualities need to function properly.

Perhaps made from many different suppliers each providing say 100??? bunters & when one wore out the operator went to “bench stock” & just grabbed another?

Personally, my guess / thought is the different bunters were some kind of quality control, to function much he same as the SCAMP system in use today. But that may be overstepping. I’d bet their QC was to have a visual inspection, grab a double handful, step out the door & let loose down range

Just food for though, but no answers.


Very odd indeed. I have also a 1944-box with the same “problem”. Maybe all different cases came together to one filling line?


Or were mixed and distributed to the loading lines. I can’t believe that with this many different case production lines they could have much fewer loading lines. From he production I have seen, the case lines and loading lines run at about the same speed! I could be wrong, but there are members here who would know.

Thanks for the ideas.



I decided to resurrect this post to see if anyone has any further thoughts.

As I understand the process, individual headstamp bunters were not crafted individually. Rather a Hob was engraved or stamped with the characters. This Hob would look like a headstamp. The hob was then hardened and used to produce the actual bunters which of course would all be essentially the same (except for wear on the Hob).

I have been told by a couple of guys who worked in the industry that this is the traditional process that was used for many decades. Today, computer graphics and laser etching and many other technologies have fundimentally changed the process and made it much cheaper to buy cases with your own headstamp. A friend gave me a hundred rounds of 9x19mm with my name for my 70th birthday.

Assuming that the HN bunters were made from Hobs (that looks like a no-brainer) then it appears very unlikely that the diversity of HN headstamps could be an artifact of the bunter production process. The only other conclusion that I can imagine is that the diversity is intentional.

My conclusion is based on the assumption on the use to Hobs to produce headstamp bunters. I would very much appreciate comments on this assumption.

I am particularly interested in information/documentation that supports or refutes the use of Hobs to produce bunters, especially during WWII.

Any other thoughts or comments welcome.



It has been 18 months since I originally posted this question, and have made no progress since the last post in mid 2017. Both replies I received were very helpful.

Recently I obtained another sealed Hirwaun 9x19mm box, this one dated 31 Dec1943 (shown below)


The original box was dated 21 Apr 1945.Note the cases are all dated 1944. It is interesting that they were apparently packed months after manufacturer.


Again, the 1943 box had quite a few different headstamp styles. These had Mk 1Z cases (no Mark number). Interestingly one round was upside down (bullet up) in the box and had obviously been loaded that way.

The headstamp variations were similar to those in the original box. For example 9 M/M, 9 MM, 9 M.M; different letter sizes; Arrows with long shaft or short shaft and different shape 9s. This degree of variation and it’s consistency implies to me that there was a reason behind the variations. I agree with Pete that it is likely different production lines. Still, this implies an awful lot of production lines running at about the same time. Perhaps each loading team on a machine had their own bunter and changed the bunters when there was a shift change. Just speculation.

I noted that Tony Edwards, discussing 303 headstamps made at Blackpole on this forum said that:

“BE” indicates cases made by R.O.F. Radway Green,
“B E” means the cases came from Kynoch. Yeading
“B^E” indicates cases from their own production

and that the complexity of British headstamps is often misunderstood.

I think these Hirwaun headstamps are a case in point.

has anyone got a Blackpole 9mm box that they can check for similar variation?

Any other ideas appreciated.


PS: Does anyone know the meanings of the “AX” and “K” mean on the box labels?


Without seeing the outer it’s hard to be certain. However, what you have, is, in all probability “Battlefield Clearance, Repack” Battlefield Clearance is a somewhat all encompassing term and in this case is more than likely ammunition leftovers returned to a depot where it is given a quick inspection, sorted and repacked prior to re-issue


Interesting idea! So you reckon that the stamp on the box indicates a repack???

I did a quick check of the 29 British military boxes I have with the gray label with green letters. Roughly half had a date stamp (16 of the 29). The ones without it tended to be the 20 round boxes and the 48 rd Mk 1Z boxes which I assume to be the earlier ones, but of course with no date, who knows.

Thanks for the info.