thanks Lew for filling in the blanks. I have what is almost a book on the snail, I found afterwards, but no need to repeat your answer. More succinct than I would have been, and probably more informative.
About replica cartridges. I have a differing view, as usual, than what I have seen on this thread. It is all well and good to make replica cartridges or have them. I have a few in my auto pistol collection myself, of calibers that either can’t be found or I couldn’t possibly hope to own if they could be found. However, these were all put out by groups or factories, and have headstamps that prove they are not the original item.
It is well and good when a collector or dealer passes on one of the unmarked cartridges explaining it is a replica, but any of us are just temporary care-takers of the cartridges in our possession now. What happens in the future, when someone does know it is a replica because it came from the collection of a collector then deceased, or chooses not to tell it is a replica?
ALL replica cartridges without a clear marking showing such - either a headstamp known to be a replica, like some of the BSA pistol cartridges that were made, or club cartridges like those from AFEHERM or CCCA that are headstamped for the club - are, in my judgment, worthy of being described as fakes. Unidentified on the cartidge, what is a replica today can become a fake tomorrow.
Sorry to disagree, but it is the way I feel on the subject. By the way, I also consider a cartridge loaded or reloaded from a new or fired umprimed case simply for the purpose of increasing its sales appeal as a fake. That has been done a lot - one year, of the new 9mm headstamps I picked up at St. Louis, four were found to be reloads when I got home (extractor and ejector marks and some case-head expansion) but were not sold to me as such. First, a headstamp is a headstamp. Reloading a round with non-original components just muddies the waters about the proper identification of a loaded round. Also, “making it easier to sell” as one dealer actually told me, implies “making it easier to sell at a higher price,” a price a reload isn’t worth.
Of course, this latter category is hard to do anything about because rounds are loaded from new cases, or reloaded in fired cases, for other purposes - by legitimate commercial reloaders, or by individuals doing it to fire them. New ammunition in other people’s cases, loaded by regular firms, such as a Cor-Bon load in a Starline or winchester case, are legitimate cartridges for the collector, and I recognize that, and have plenty of them myself. So, this is probably impossible to “regulate.” I just point it out, frankly, to get a gripe off my chest.