I think this “Military-Police” Dichotomy and argument (Mostly by Americans and some Anglos) is a result of the wide differance of “how things are” when one compares the US (and the British Empire) with (Broadly) European nations…(.incl. Russia and Far East)
The Majority of Anglo/Westminster/US type regimes have a discrete “separation of Powers” between the Military and the Civil Police, which dates from the early 19th century and before.
The Euro Nations have a “Code Napoleon” system, where the “Police” Forces were a branch of the Armed Forces ( although depending from an “Interior Ministry” or similar.) Even the word “Gendarme” (French) comes from the medieval term for “Men-at-arms” which in time of war meant a soldier, and in times of peace, a Peace-Keeper and Enforcer of the Law of the Land.
IN Britain, the “Police Force” developed as an adjunct to the Magistrates…and have always been a Civil Force…the same, with variations, developed in the US. But in Europe, starting from France, under Napoleon, with his unified Civil and Penal Codes ( and spread to all the European nations which had been affected by the Napoleonic Empire,) the System was “Militarised” in both Structure and Composition.
Whilst as I said previously, depending on countries…the control of these “Forces” was under Ministries such as The Interior , or Justice, etc, The origin and structure was “Military” ( and still is, as in Italy, the Carabinieri are part of Defence, even though they are a fully National Police force ( but also “Miltiary Police”); The Former “NKVD” ( the Milicija or “Blue caps” of the USSR,) were the “Secret Police”/State Police/Operators of the Gulags,/ and the primary Intelligence Service…The Initials refer to the Peoples Commitee for Internal Security, and the Later KGB ( Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Besopasnosti) is the “Committee for State Security” all run on military lines, with Military equipment…
What had occurred in Germany, well before Hitler, was that the Landes (individual states) had their own Police Forces( equipped more or less like the Armed Forces of the Various Components of the Initial Reich
of 1871); The Prussian State, being the Foremost in the Federated Empire, virtually was the “German Army” along with the Bavarian Army, and units from the Lesser principalities…
When the Nazis came to power in 1933, they already had a Napoleonic Police structure in existence…they just imposed the SS and its various special offices (SD–Security Service with various sub groups, such as Kripo ( Criminal Police), The Railway Police and of Course, the SS Prime “hitmen”-- the Gestapo ( Geheime Staats Polizei…Secret State Police)…a national unit with far-reaching powers over everyone…including the Armed Forces…
But even with such far reaching Powers, the Wehrmacht (Armed Forces) still stood apart from all these “para-military units” both in Law and in Fact. Hence the “separate procurement systems” regarding Small Arms and Ammunition…There was also an element of “Civil Gun Control” also dating from Pre-Napoleonic times as well…Arms belonging to the Armed Forces were prohibited to “Ordinary Civilians”…and mere possession of Military property was a statutory Offence of Strict Liability…if one ( non Military) possessed Current Gov’t property, that person was ipso-facto, guilty of an offence…no further proof required.
That led to Non-Miltiary organisations such as Police, etc, which were “local” entities, to have to procure supplies thru normal commercial channels…often from the same suppliers as the Military, but with different “markings”.
Slighly different rules applied in Britain, where say, Lee Enfield Rifles were made exclusively by the RSAF Enfield for the British Gov’t )(War Office) whilst BSA and LSA made the same Patterns for both the British Gov’t (under Contract) and for “The Trade”…these latter having to be Civily “proofed” before entering Commerce. Likewise the trade did acquire Military-issue arms, but only after they had been “>S<” ( Sold out of Service ) and passed proof again at the Civil Proof Houses.
SO, the SS ( armed Guard of the Party…specifically AH) went to war in 1939 with a hodgepodge of Weaponry acquired from Life-expired WW I rifles, Privately acquired “Standard Modell” and other Kar98k clones, and of course, Small arms “liberated” from Austria and Czechoslovakia in 38-39…and the big lot from Poland in 1939.
SO when they went into Barbrossa in June 1941, the Waffen SS had a wide variety of weaponry which fired 7,9mm sS Patrone, which also was acquired from "Commercial "sources, whether off the shelf, or specific manufacture, or (after 1938) by controlling production in Non-German factories acquired by annexation.
All this differentaition ceased when Albert Speer became Riechs Munitions Minister.( 1942)…he unified supply so the the by-then substantial “SS” combat units could access Wehrmacht supplies with one supply chain.
Just shows that when one is reasearching Cartridges in a miltary context, one must have a handle on the Political, Industrial and Commercial History of the times as well…to explain why and wherefore things happened the way they did.
If one tries to apply say…American ideas of the separation of Police and Army to the European situation, one will always get things wrong.
Not to say that American Police Forces are not as well armed as some smaller countries’ Armies…Look at the number of armoured vehicles, Combat Helos, and even ( full auto) small arms that some Major US PDs have…are they expecting a full-on War in their Jurisdictions? ( the Mexicans do, …as have the Brazilian Police lately… But they are “Code” countries…
I think we have done this topic to death, well and gone…like others have mentioned…Ignorance, Pig-headedness and Bad Assumption are the Enemy of rational discussion and argument.
Onwards Scientific Dialogue… Historia Scientiaque Armorum Nos Liberabit.