Great 7.62x54R Article,


#1

…too bad I can’t read it!!! For those of you who read Russian, I hope you enjoy more than the pics!

gunmag.com.ua/arhive/patron3_web.pdf


#2

JonnyC–That is a good looking article. It seems to be restricted to WW-I era ammo. Most of the information you see on the 7.62x54R is WW-II and later. It sure would be nice if one of our Russian reading Forum members would take on the task of translating the text. Are you listening Vlad?. Since it is a PDF file the online translator programs won’t work.


#3

Yes, I may do this but… before I start, there is something on the very top of the article, it says: Текст и фото: Дмитрий aka Treshkin Адеев,
БОЕКОМПЛЕКТ Андрей aka Pul’kin Донец, official IAA members. Now, is it possible that these guys, being IAA members, already have translated this article? May anyone ask them? And if not, I’ll give it a shot.


#4

Meanwhile, here is what Babelfish thinks this article says:

38 | | 6/09 THE FIRST STEPS End of Russo-Turkish the howl are in 1878 ; newest of [dostizhe]- [niya] of weapons technology and [perevo]- [oruzhenie] of foreign armies yes whether push to Russian experiences, on [pravlennym] for the development of the magician the [zinnoy] rifle. In May 1878. in millets about the need for the tests magazine guns it was set before the division on the weapons of [cha]- to [sti] artillery committee. Soon new Defense Minister [P]. [S]. [Vannovskiy], who replaced on this post Of [d]. [A]. [Milyutin], Ini [tsiiroval] creation by the special of [komis]- this for testing magazine guns. It headed known gunsmith, Major General n. i. [Chagin]. In the composition of the commission of [vosh]- whether also by [upravdelami] Of [artille]- [riyskogo] committee the Major General [N]. [A]. [Snessarev] Colonel a. i. background der [Khoven]. Since April 1883. Commission energetically started after study, and since July 1883. it composition was supplemented by the chief Text and the photo: Dmitriy aka Of treshkin Of [adeev], FIRE UNIT Andrey aka Of pul’kin the Donets, Official IAA of members Our, trilinear On April 16, 2009. were carried out 118 years from the moment from Denmark the highest command of the sovereign of emperor Alexander THE III about the adoption for the armament of the Russian army of the 3- linear rifle cartridge of model 1891 g. [so]- answering order of № 124 according to main battery to [skomu] control (GAU) left on May 11, 1891. Despite to their solid age, cartridge, until now are in service of Russian army the almost forty countries of world. The large number of different publications, which, it is at first glance, is devoted to domestic 3- linear cartridge, they give about it the comprehensive information. But it occurs with the more detailed analysis that in true [rii] of this oldest of now consisting to [vooruzhe]- NII (Scientific Research Institute) rifle- machine-gun ammunition are [znachi]- body “white spots”, inaccuracies and vaguenesses. Therefore in this article it was decided not to be limited to the brief description of the basic stages of the development of the cartridge of 7.62[kh]54R, but to at the same time designate number of the questions, which need further detailed study.
the workshop of the Tula weapons GO of plant, by captain [S]. [I]. [Mosi]- . Initially work [ko]- missions were directed on IS the movement of a question of alteration 4.2- the linear rifle of Berdan about [raztsa] 1870 g. into the magazine (under [robnee] see [Klishin] a., [Yarovenko] Yu. “tendency toward the rapid-firing to [sti]”, Mir of enthusiasm. Hunting I yell [zhie], № 5 (27) 2009); however, in the fogs those 1885 g. these works were [prio]- [stanovleny]. In 1886. in France [prini]- the store toils for the armament rifle “[Lebel]” it is reduced foot caliber of 8 mm and [revolyutsion]- ache cartridge with the smokeless powder 8[kh]50R Of lebel. Since March the same GO yes on the initiative the chief of GAU lieutenant general [L]. [P]. [Sofia]- but by commission for the tests mA the [gazinnykh] rifles in Russia of [nacha]- whether the study by the promising the rifle of the reduced caliber. In the same 1886 g. the commission studied the rifle of the Swiss of [professo]- the Ra [Kheblera] cal. 7.5 mm and its [patro]- on with the black powder and the bullet in to copper shell. Since the type of future the store noy of the rifle at the beginning of the searches yet it was not known, then, beginning [s] September 1885 ; the work of term the are [tilleriyskogo] committee GAU the sex [n]. [F]. [Rogovtsev]'s [kovnika] into the first turn they were directed toward the time to [rabotku] of new stem (with 4 and 6 on by the cuts of different slope) and pA the throne of the reduced caliber. Already in 1886. by Colonel [Rogovtsev] was proposed new [odnoza]- in-line rifle and the new cartridge the caliber of 3.15 lines (8 mm). PU [lya] of the new 3.15- linear cartridge it consisted of iron or copper shell and core from the solid GO of the alloy of lead and tin. Afterward obtaining information about the fact that French bullet shape 1886 g. of [ime]- [et] the German-silver shell, rho- [govtsev] used the same material for the shell its experimental PU whether. Case of the cartridge Of [rogovtseva] of [ime]- la composite construction on the base [berdanovskoy] case, from [tselnotya]- by the [nutym] housing and internal of [cha]- [shechkoy], that amplifies the Donets [gil]- [zy]. Author in its cartridge to the tonic the Nile is old, black powder, but un- how much improved it, after introducing [v] with after becoming ammonium nitrate. Bullet pA the throne Of [rogovtseva] it developed on the [chalnuyu] speed of 550 m/s, but po- [rokh] with ammonium nitrate with moving supports to the rapid wear of Kahn the la of stem and with the prolonged of [khra]- of [nenii] it became unsuitable. Ra boats overshoes Of [rogovtseva] and its experimental pA throne they played large role with to the development of the trilinear cartridge the shape of 1891 g. Generation of the cartridge In some sources of [ukazyva]- [etsya], that the Russian cartridge of 7.62[kh]54R it was created on the base of the French GO of 8[kh]50R Of lebel or Austrian GO of 8x50R Of mannlicher. Possibly, the specific portion of truth in these assertions it is present, that is more that the commission of [deystvitel]- but it had available the information about [dru]- [gikh] foreign developments, on an example, about that accepted to [vooruzhe]- [nie] of German army to the rifle the shape of 1888 g. cal. 8 mm and English

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 1[/color] [color=#0000FF] Trilinear live cartridges: 1 shape of 1891 g., 2-7 - shape of 1908 g. release 1908-1917 yr., 4 cartridge with landing of bullet on 3 lines ([PPZ], 1909 g.), 7 [peresnaryazhennyy] live cartridge of the period First World War[/color]

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 2[/color] [color=#0000FF]“Contemporaries” three-LinaY foot cartridge (to the left [napra]- v): 1 8[kh]60R Of kropatschek, 1885 g. (Portugal), is 2nd 8x50R Of lebel, 1886 g. (France), 3- of 9.5x60R Mauser, 1887 g. (Turkey), 4 8x50R Of mannlicher, 1888 g. (Austria-Hungary), is 5th 7.9x57 Of mauser, 1888 g. (Germany), 6 8x58R Of krag- Jorgensen, 1889 g. (Denmark), 7 .303 British, 1889 g. ([Ve]- [likobritaniya]), is eighth 7.65x53 Mauser, 1889 g. (Belgium), 9 7.5x53.5 Of schmidt-Rubin, 1890 g. (Switzerland), 10 7.62x54R Of [mosin], 1891 g. (Russia), 11- 6.5x52 Carcano, 1891 g. (Italy), 12- .30-40 Krag, 1892 g.[/color]

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 3[/color] [color=#0000FF]FIRE UNIT[/color]

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 4[/color] [color=#0000FF]Soldier[/color]

to rifle “whether -[Metford]” cal. .303. Let us try to briefly examine those historical events, which led to the creation of the final of [patro]- on - 7.62[kh]54R. In 1889. by order GAU instead of [Komis]- this on testing of magazine rifles la is created new commission for the production mA of the [gazinnogo] gun, which, as before, cart mainyl [N]. [I]. [Chagin]. At the beginning of the same year from France was delivered new rifle “to le linen yarn” the shape of 1886 g., but only with the bullets and [gil]- by [zami] since powder at that moment was secret the component of French cartridge. Po- [sle] of thorough examinations commission from methyl the major advantages of French rifle - successful stem, total light weight and the caliber of 8 mm. but the case of the French of [patro]- on was acknowledged too massive and [cheres]- mind you of complex form. In 1889. Commission of the semi- [chila] for studies the Austrian rifle “[Mannlikher]” the shape of 1888 g. cal. 8[kh]50R and the store the rifle of the Belgian gunsmith of Leon [Nagan] with stem and cartridge of the caliber of 3.15 LI- NII (Scientific Research Institute) under the cartridge Of [rogovtseva]. After tests the Austrian cartridge of 8[kh]50R Of mannlicher was with [znan] “worthy of imitation”. However, [chle]- are commissions they noted that steel [oboloch]- kA of Austrian bullet to attackable and leads to the intensive wear of stem. From honey noy of the bullet jacket Of [rogovtseva] also they decided to refuse since copper it did not possess a sufficient hardness for the normal entry PU into the threads of stem. For the cartridge shell of [vogo] cartridge was selected the developed in France material German silver - alloy of copper with nickel (Ger. Melchior from [iskazh]. Fr. maillotchorier). Despite the fact that the versions of [spla]- VA of copper with nickel were known even into III [ve]- to [ke] B.C. as “white copper”, them about [shchee] name occurred from the names its contemporary developers - the Frenchmen of Mayo and To [shore] (Maillot, Chorier). In the middle 1889 g. of [razrabo]- [tan] smokeless powder for the new GO of small-caliber cartridge, and in 1890 g. - percussion cap. At the same time the sex [kovnikom] by Petrov and [shtabs]- by captain [Savostyanov] about was conducted work on [proektirova]- to [niyu] and to the composition of the drawings of [stvo]- la by caliber into three lines and corres. the [vetstvuyushchego] cartridge on the base pA the throne Of [rogovtseva] and experimental of the faults [tovki] cal. 3.15 lines. By conclusions The case was recommended to commissions c[o] by the continuous monolithic of [flan]- [tsem], instead of that bent according to the type Beer [danovskoy], and without the internal of [usi]- the [livayushchey] cup. Besides the purpose noy of brass case, new pA throne originally was created for smokeless powder and bullet the sand-bar by [khiorovoy] shell. Afterward that GO as the initial problems were re- with the smokeless powder Schoens and new powder of [proizvod]- [stva] Of the [okhtenskogo] powder trans- water became completely [udovletvo]- to [ryat] to all requirements, the commission in its conclusions recognized [preimu]- [shchestva] of the new 3- linear potash sconce it required at the end 1890 g. to [perestvolit] experimental of the screws Ci Of [mosina] and Nagant revolver cal. 3.15 LI- [niy] (8 mm) under the new 3- linear (7.62 mm) stem and cartridge. By such by means, direct of the times by [rabotchikami] of the cartridge, which it is accepted to call “3- linear the cartridge shape of 1891 g.”, appeared [vkho]- [divshie] into the composition of commission for you to [rabotke] of the magazine gun of the matter producer, Colonel Petrov and commissioned into [Komis]- this [shtabs]- captain [Savostyanov]. For the new Russian of [patro]- on was developed [tselnotyanu]- concealing brass case [s] I come out by [shchim] flange. Percussion [gnez]- to the case it had central on to [kovalenku] even two seeding from [verstiya]. Cartridge was equipped with the dull by the final bullet with a length of 30.4 mm and with weight 13.73 g in the German-silver about to [lochke] with the core from the alloy lead and 1.5% of antimony. Charge without the black powder with a mass of 2.2-2.35 g it reported to bullet the initial velocity 620 m/s. It is obvious that [konstruk]- [tsiya] of the Austrian case of 8[kh]50R Mannlicher showed specific [k] shch e f C t g 1 [k] [k] in n l in t t [K] c Q d l n t b X RUSSIAN 3-[LINEY]- ACHE CARTRIDGE - OLDEST FROM THE NOW REAL [STVUYUSHCHIKH] [ARMEY]- [SKIKH] OF THE RIFLE MACHINE-GUN COMBAT SUPPLIES
to rifle “whether -[Metford]” cal. .303. Let us try to briefly examine those historical events, which led to the creation of the final of [patro]- on - 7.62[kh]54R. In 1889. by order GAU instead of [Komis]- this on testing of magazine rifles la is created new commission for the production mA of the [gazinnogo] gun, which, as before, cart mainyl [N]. [I]. [Chagin]. At the beginning of the same year from France was delivered new rifle “to le linen yarn” the shape of 1886 g., but only with the bullets and [gil]- by [zami] since powder at that moment was secret the component of French cartridge. Po- [sle] of thorough examinations commission from methyl the major advantages of French rifle - successful stem, total light weight and the caliber of 8 mm. but the case of the French of [patro]- on was acknowledged too massive and [cheres]- mind you of complex form. In 1889. Commission of the semi- [chila] for studies the Austrian rifle “[Mannlikher]” the shape of 1888 g. cal. 8[kh]50R and the store the rifle of the Belgian gunsmith of Leon [Nagan] with stem and cartridge of the caliber of 3.15 LI- NII (Scientific Research Institute) under the cartridge Of [rogovtseva]. After tests the Austrian cartridge of 8[kh]50R Of mannlicher was with [znan] “worthy of imitation”. However, [chle]- are commissions they noted that steel [oboloch]- kA of Austrian bullet to attackable and leads to the intensive wear of stem. From honey noy of the bullet jacket Of [rogovtseva] also they decided to refuse since copper it did not possess a sufficient hardness for the normal entry PU into the threads of stem. For the cartridge shell of [vogo] cartridge was selected the developed in France material German silver - alloy of copper with nickel (Ger. Melchior from [iskazh]. Fr. maillotchorier). Despite the fact that the versions of [spla]- VA of copper with nickel were known even into III [ve]- to [ke] B.C. as “white copper”, them about [shchee] name occurred from the names its contemporary developers - the Frenchmen of Mayo and To [shore] (Maillot, Chorier). In the middle 1889 g. of [razrabo]- [tan] smokeless powder for the new GO of small-caliber cartridge, and in 1890 g. - percussion cap. At the same time the sex [kovnikom] by Petrov and [shtabs]- by captain [Savostyanov] about was conducted work on [proektirova]- to [niyu] and to the composition of the drawings of [stvo]- la by caliber into three lines and corres. the [vetstvuyushchego] cartridge on the base pA the throne Of [rogovtseva] and experimental of the faults [tovki] cal. 3.15 lines. By conclusions The case was recommended to commissions c[o] by the continuous monolithic of [flan]- [tsem], instead of that bent according to the type Beer [danovskoy], and without the internal of [usi]- the [livayushchey] cup. Besides the purpose noy of brass case, new pA throne originally was created for smokeless powder and bullet the sand-bar by [khiorovoy] shell. Afterward that GO as the initial problems were re- with the smokeless powder Schoens and new powder of [proizvod]- [stva] Of the [okhtenskogo] powder trans- water became completely [udovletvo]- to [ryat] to all requirements, the commission in its conclusions recognized [preimu]- [shchestva] of the new 3- linear potash sconce it required at the end 1890 g. to [perestvolit] experimental of the screws Ci Of [mosina] and Nagant revolver cal. 3.15 LI- [niy] (8 mm) under the new 3- linear (7.62 mm) stem and cartridge. By such by means, direct of the times by [rabotchikami] of the cartridge, which it is accepted to call “3- linear the cartridge shape of 1891 g.”, appeared [vkho]- [divshie] into the composition of commission for you to [rabotke] of the magazine gun of the matter producer, Colonel Petrov and commissioned into [Komis]- this [shtabs]- captain [Savostyanov]. For the new Russian of [patro]- on was developed [tselnotyanu]- concealing brass case [s] I come out by [shchim] flange. Percussion [gnez]- to the case it had central on to [kovalenku] even two seeding from [verstiya]. Cartridge was equipped with the dull by the final bullet with a length of 30.4 mm and with weight 13.73 g in the German-silver about to [lochke] with the core from the alloy lead and 1.5% of antimony. Charge without the black powder with a mass of 2.2-2.35 g it reported to bullet the initial velocity 620 m/s. It is obvious that [konstruk]- [tsiya] of the Austrian case of 8[kh]50R Mannlicher showed specific [k] shch e f C t g 1 [k] [k] in n l in t t [K] c Q d l n t b X RUSSIAN 3-[LINEY]- ACHE CARTRIDGE - OLDEST FROM THE NOW REAL [STVUYUSHCHIKH] [ARMEY]- [SKIKH] OF THE RIFLE MACHINE-GUN COMBAT SUPPLIES
water, Colonel [G]. [P]. [Kisnemskiy]. During Russo-Japanese war 1904-1905 yr. they were about [naruzheny] essential deficiencies in [tupoko]- of the [nechnoy] bullet shape of 1891 g. it had [nedosta]- precise piercing power with the shooting at the purposes, situated after the shelters, I yell [diynymi], machine-gun and movable the entrenchment by panels or protected they are breast mi by armors. Large weight obtuse PU whether led to the significant slope of [traekto]- of [rii], that limited beaten [prostran]- [stvo]. In connection with this in 1905. was developed pointed bullet with a weight of 10.5 g. [pri] [nachal]- noy of the speed of 720 m/s it possessed the best about by [bivaemostyu], than the bullet shape of 1891 g. experimental the parties of such bullets were produced in 1905. P by [terburgskim] ammunition factory ([PPZ]). One to in the course of further tests there was [obnaru]- of wife, that the bullets shape of 1905 g. have [neudovletvo]- [ritelnuyu] accuracy and frequently they are torn away to bunk call. For eliminating these deficiencies attempted to introduce into the construction of bullet the broadening cups of Colonel [Rutkovskiy]'s system. Odes [nako] soon the works on the new cartridge were ended because of the end of Russo-Japanese war. It is interesting to note that Russian experiments with the bullets, which have [rasshiri]- body elements in the ground part, were about [dolzheny] in 1910- X yr. in particular, [ispytyva]- whether the bullet of the system Of the [dobregeanskogo] shape of 1913 g. (USA Of patent of #1141783 from 1.06.1915). In 1906. for developing the new bullet la are created special commission, [vozglavlyae]- of May by Major General [A]. [E]. [Kern]. They entered into its composition: the consultative member of commission, about [fessor] of the Mikhajlovsk artillery of [akade]- of [mii], lieutenant general [V]. [L]. Chebyshev the sex of [kovnik] [V]. [K]. [Doroshin] (from [PPZ]); [profes]- litter [M]. [Zherebyatnikov] ([Okhten]- [skiy] powder plant); [N]. [M]. [Fi]- [latov] (gun range); [V]. [G]. Fedorov (weapons from the matters GAU); [M]. [Neklyudov] ([inspek]- the torus of the weapons and cartridge trans- [vodov]); Colonel n. i. of the Jura Mountains catching (weapons- cartridge division GAU); [M]. [P]. [Dymsh] ([artkom] GAU). Clout on the development the Russian pointed bullet of the eye [zali] delivered to the serviceman of [razved]- the German cartridges of 7.9[kh]57 with PU leu S shape of 1904 g. is afterward carried out tests for the basis of the Russian pointed bullet it was selected specifically, the German bullet Of spitzgeschoss. With the comparison of these two bullets of [mozh]- but to note the similarity of their overall sizes. Thus, German has a length of 28.3 mm, Russian - 29.15 mm. a radius of [ozhi]- shaft part S -geschoss - 60 mm, in the Russian bullet shape of 1908 g. - 54.41. Weight of German bullet - 10 g, Russian [skoy] - 9.6 g. essential from [lichiem] of Russian bullet from the German GO “of prototype” appears [koniche]- [skoe] deepening in the ground part for the best entry of bullet in the bunk [zy] of stem. New cartridge from [ostroko]- by [nechnoy] bullet it was accepted to [vooru]- [zhenie] in 1908. Total weight of the cartridge it decreased up to 22 g. it was corresponding but, the number [nosimykh] by the soldier of [patro]- it is new it grew from 120 to 137 without the ism [neniya] of the mass of fire unit. [Nachal]- the speed of bullet reached 860 m/s. Considerably they increased the distance [nost] of straight shot after opening the ability of bullet, and the distance the aimed fire it comprised already 3200 steps (2276 m). On the comparison with the bullet shape of 1891 g. the bullet shape of 1908 g. had the increased diameter to 7.84-7.92 mm (instead of 7.77-7.82 mm) for the best entry into the threads, the increased thickness of shell [s] 0,3 to 0,51 mm and reduced [glu]- to [binu] of landing in the cartridge case neck 5.0 mm (i.e. two lines) instead of 6.9 mm. it is other [teresno] to note that in 1909. [PPZ] it let out party “3- linear BO the rifle pointed cartridges with landing of bullet on three LI- NII (Scientific Research Institute)”. Possibly, such deep po- the charge of bullets in these cartridges was [svya]- [zana] with the experiments from [avtomatiche]- by [skim] weapon. In 1908-1909 yr. the bullet the shape of 1908 g. had intensive [kreple]- [nie] in the cartridge case neck with the aid of ker [neniya] at three points. However, since 1910. the punching of cartridge neck was not produced. TO THE SHORT DISTANCES Besides live cartridges, to [vooru]- [zhenie] of Russian army there were [prinya]- you different practical of [patro]- [

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 5–HEADSTAMPS–DOES NOT SEEM TO BE TRANLATED[/color]

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 6[/color] [color=#0000FF]Korotkoboynye] cartridges: 1 “old” means TsA with the round lead bullet, is 2nd [konstruk]- of [tsii] of Tarasov (common form and section), 3- cook the anta of [korotkoboynogo] cartridge with the short it is pig by [tsovoy] bullet with the conical deepening, 4 pA throne with the bullet “[Margo]” from [tselluloidina] (time cut), it is 5th the bullet of Tarasov - common form, is fired bullet and section, 6 rejected bullet container owl without the lateral openings on the leading part, 7 version of [korotkoboynoy] bullet with the conical deepening[/color]

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 7–PRACTICE CARTRIDGE–DOES NOT SEEM TO BE TRANLATED[/color]

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 8–BLANK CARTRIDGES–DOES NOT SEEM TO BE TRANLATED[/color]

are devices. First time po- [sle] of adoption for the armament of the three- linear rifle shape of 1891 g. for practice shootings on to [rotkie] distances (to 150 m) IS treated the [korotkoboynye] of [patro]- they were, that were being appeared, in the essence, [umen]- by the [shennoy] copy of the [korotkoboynykh] cartridges for the rifles of the high calibers of the period of the smoky pore- [khov]. Such cartridges consisted of regular case with the percussion cap, [kru]- of the [gloy] lead bullet with a weight of 2.85 g, paper wad and charge of [kholo]- stack semismoke powder of stamp X with a weight of 0.78 g. however such a pA throne had a number of the essential un- abundances: the frequent stalling of bullets from the threads, the strong lead plating kA of money of stem and pollution powder [vym] carbon deposit. At the beginning 1900- X yr. there were the attempts to invent the new the model of the [korotkoboynogo] cartridge, which would satisfy I follow the [shchim] requirements: - a good closely grouped fire on dis [tantsiyakh] to 100-150 m; - low cost; - the possibility of equipment to [rotkoboynykh] cartridges into [kazh]- by [doy] troop weapons mA [sterskoy]; - weak penetration effect PU whether so that it would be benefit to [vatsya] by the simplest shooting range; - the safety of the bore of the faults of [tovki] after several thousand shots; - the ease (simplicity) of cleaning stem after shooting. On the basis these criteria were proposed different KON [struktsii] of practical cartridges. For example, cartridges are lead mi by bullets with two flutes, filled with fat, the cartridges with the wooden bullets (from itself sheet rubber, coco shell and so forth) and others during the tests of [patro]- are with the lead bullets they gave the strong lead plating of stem, and to pA thrones with the wooden bullets po- seemed poor close grouping. Interest but to note that wooden PU of [lya] to 200 steps broke through inch [vuyu] pine board. From the models proposed best proved to be the short ram cartridges of system the container owl. In 1906. they were [rekomen]- are [dovany] GAU for the adoption on in [oruzhenie] of Russian army. PA the thrones of the system of Tarasov shape. 1906 g., or “cartridges for [strel]- by reduced charge”, with stood from the case, the percussion cap, the dawn yes of the powder for blank ammunition with a weight of 0.3 g and bullets. By main element of this cartridge was special pig the [tsovaya] obtuse bullet with a weight of 4.77 g. in the head part of the bullet of [ime]- la the cavity, filled about with stuffing box from the mixture of fat and potash. Potash was introduced into the composition about stuffing box for the neutralization turned sour the [lotnykh] remainders of the powder of [naga]- of the Ra and, correspondingly, [prepyatstvo]- of [vaniya] of rust formation in kA money of stem. On the leading above [nosti] bullet they were executed by Che to [tyre] of through symmetrical from [verstiya] with the sizes of 1[kh]1.5 mm. [pri] shot bullet was deformed, and [osalka] was extruded through BO [kovye] openings to the threads, which prevented lead plating [stvo]- la. Are also known the versions of Tarasov’s bullets from tin with a weight of 3.0 g and continuous obtuse lead [vye] bullets with the conical of [uglubleni]- I eat in the ground part. The merits of the [korotkoboynykh] cartridges of Tarasov’s system included the possibility of safe shooting to [nebol]- [shikh] on the space places. For the shooting range it suffices to make a barrier from the one inch pine boards. PA thrones had the good accuracy on the distance to 150 steps. For
shootings were used [obych]- combat rifles. However, to the [rotkoboynye] cartridges shape of 1906 g. they possessed the number of deficiencies. P red by the shot is necessary of [vstrya]- to [khivat] rifle by muzzle upward, that the small powder charge of [osy]- fall to the breech openings case. Bullets must were very accurately to be stamped at the plant, A before the equipment thoroughly from to [brakovyvatsya]. With the shooting of the bullet Tarasov they give certain the slope [nie] to the right because of the absence of [otda]- [chi] since of rifle for the shooting BO they were shot by cartridge with the bayonet. Also essential by deficiency [korotkoboynykh] pA thrones appeared the short period of [khrane]- [niya]. Under the action of the temperature surrounding media [osalka] from the bullet it penetrated the powder, and it was greased ache powder it considerably weakened, so that bullet with the shot frequently it got stuck in the stem of rifle. Un- looking at the deficiencies, cartridge with PU Tarasov’s leu was located to [vooru]- [zhenii] of Russian, and then red army, at least, to sulfur dyne 1920- X yr. Following the cartridge with the bullet that it is racial it is developed one additional [prak]- [ticheskiy] cartridge with the bullet from is entire [luloidina] - mixture of celluloid and graphite. Also this cartridge had designation “cartridge is reduced by charge and by bullet “[Margo]” or “cartridge with the reduced charge and by light bullet” (“by heavy” PU leu was counted lead bullet that it is racial). For the basis of the Russian of [prak]- [ticheskogo] cartridge with the bullet “the fogs GO” was undertaken analogous in KON [struktsii] Dutch [prakti]- the [cheskiy] cartridge of 6.5[kh]54R - Marga geweerpatroon (Scherpe Of patroon № 7) with the bullet from [tselluloidina], accepted for the armament [golland]- [skoy] army in 1900. Bullet obtain la name “[Marga]” on the surname its inventor - retired kA [pitana] of Belgian army. Russian [skiy] cartridge with “light” bullet with it stood from the case, the charge of the unmarried GO of the powder X with a weight of 0.44 g, [voyloch]- foot wad, [prosalnika] under the bullet and obtuse bullet from [tsellu]- [loidina] with the length of 16.86 mm and by the weight 0.94 g. in the literature are also described the versions of equipment of this of [patro]- on by the charge of the smokeless powder Of [kh]2 with a weight of 0.3 g or the revolver powder R with a weight of 0.2 g. For the equipment of the [korotkoboynykh] cartridges most frequently were used selected of [stre]- [lyanye] cases from combat or unmarried [patro]- it was new. For this were selected flat cases, without the cracks or any other visible under- [statkov]. Before the equipment of the housing of cases about they [zhimalis], the cartridge case neck of the blank cartridges they straightened. After the swage of the slope of case at the cartridge case neck appeared characteristic po- pepper belt - track from the bend of [patronni]- kA of rifle. For practice shootings to very [korot]- [kikh] distances - to 15 steps (it is simpler than [govo]- [rya], for the room shooting), in the Russian army adapted special devices under about by [shchim] name “instrument for the shooting of pellets [kami]”. By their construction these devices are subdivided into two types: cartridge and composition. Cartridge instruments are barrel in the overall sizes of the live cartridge, inside which is made the channel with the threads. Composite have two basic components - housing and stem, prepared from steel. Barrel packs [sya] into the bore of the rifle all the time of [strel]-. The housing, which also call “the Kama the Ra”, is equipped into the store of rifle and will be given [sya] into the chamber by means of the lock of rifle for fulfilling the sequential shot. For [ustra]- of [neniya] of the breakthrough of gases with the shot to the tail end of the barrel is put on the leather circle, which serves as the obturator between [stvoli]- kilohms and “chamber” after closing of lock. [V] in [yskovykh] workshop also [izgo]- [tavlivalis] different “[neshtat]- the” versions of those described are above instruments. Internal device and the operating principle of both the types devices identical. Outside devices have a form of the combat cartridge. Inside the device of [ime]- [et] the stem of the caliber of 2.5 mm (0.1 in) with six threads. In the lower of [cha]- to [sti] barrel is a nest for the accomodation of anvil and [kapsyu]- [lya]. Diameter of this nest the pain to [she] of the diameter of stem with the threads. For the shooting such cartridges of the sleep they [ryazhayutsya] from the side of the lower of [cha]- to [sti] by the round lead of the pellets , by anvil and by percussion cap from 4.2- linear cartridge to the screws to Berdan’s [ke]. “Instruments for [strel]- by pellets” they were allowed to IS to use only from [spetsial]- by training rifles. Simultaneously with the adoption BO the cartridge shape of 1891 g. on in [oruzhenie] of Russian army it was with [nyat] blank cartridge, [prednazna]- the [chennyy] for the instruction soldier of [pra]- to the pitchforks of shooting, imitation you it is crane operator during the studies and grease comrade the blank cartridge shape of 1891 g. it consisted of case, charge of [kholo]- stack powder X with a weight of 0.94-1.53 g and the paper bullet of the construction

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 9[/color] [color=#0000FF]The drill cartridges: 1,2 - cartridges “1st model”, 3- the cartridge “2nd model” (development OSSh), 4, it is 5th the modification of drill cartridges shape. 1908 g., 6 one of the versions of the drill cartridge
[/color]

Colonel [ignateva]. [Kreple]- [nie] of bullet was achieved by the circle howl by rolling the edge of [dul]- TsA of case. For the instruction of soldiers in the rules rotation with the weapon in the Russian armies were accepted several the types of drill cartridges. Training the cartridge shape of 1891 g. represented with battle regular case is castrated by percussion cap and by rod from [dre]- [vesiny] of solid rocks, it is fixed by in the cartridge case neck one or by two rollings. External (top [nyaya]) the part of the rod, painted in red color, it had a form of bullet, and lower rested by its end in the ground partition. Soon these cartridges were trans- [meneny] by another model of the training GO of cartridge, that consists of the regular case with the mock-up of bullet from the solid the wood, painted into the red colored however this version of the studies foot cartridge it had deficiencies - its center of gravity was displaced [k] to the Donets case, which brought [k] to misfeed from [magazi]- on. Furthermore, with the intensive use the wooden bullet it rapidly became unsuitable. In connection with the unsatisfactory by the characteristics of the regular studies cartridges in 1896. in the officer to [skoy] rifle school (OSSh) the tests by the un- were carried out how many experimental about [raztsov] of drill cartridges. On the re- to [zultatam] of tests rifle committee recommended the training the cartridge of construction OSSh shape. 1896 g. for using [narav]- not with the regular training of [patro]- by us. Cartridge OSSh was the analogs Chen for the construction of the French mu to the drill cartridge of 8[kh]50R Of lebel and it consisted of the wooden of the crusts [pusa], inserted into [metalliche]- [skiy] pan (trimming the ground of [cha]- to [sti] regular case) with the length of the eye Law 15 mm. to the upper part of the crusts [pusa] was mounted shell from regular bullet. Fixation of [poddo]- to the bullets on the wooden of [korpu]- [se] was achieved by the metallic by pin or strong of [poperech]- noy by rolling. As a result, cook both the anta of the drill cartridges of [ispol]- they [zovalis] in the troops in parallel. Cartridge with the wooden bullet po- shone brightly designation “training pA the throne of the 1st model”, and cartridge de by the [revyannym] housing - “the studies ache the cartridge of the 2nd model the officer [skoy] rifle school”. In 1908. with the adoption for the armament with combat [vogo] cartridge with light bullet of hundred whether to use the new models of the studies cartridges with the pointed by bullets - drill cartridge from [dere]- by the [vyannoy] bullet and the drill cartridge OSSh. It was also affirmed the [vaya] model of drill cartridge, with stood from the case, continuous wooden bullet and the tip with the short lead of [serdechni]- kilohms. Wooden bullet passed throughout the entire length of case. Length on [konechnika] composed half the length of regular bullet. For the arms factories and mA [sterskikh] they were accepted by special-I Alni verifying cartridges. They were intended for [prover]- Ci of the fitness for work of units I yell [zhiya]. Verifying cartridge shape. 1891 g. was the state case with that castrated the knot [syulem], by combat bullet and [metalliche]- by [skimi] sawdust or by sand, by them tarring the weight of powder the dawn yes. For the difference verifying pA thrones from the combat on lateral po- [verkhnosti] of bullet and on the cartridge neck of [gil]- [zy] was carried out transverse the counterrecoil kA. In 1908. was accepted new the model of verifying cartridge, to [toraya] differed from previous only by pointed bullet. As a whole from the moment of adoption on armament prior to the beginning first mi [rovoy] war the Russian 3- linear cartridge satisfied practically to all standard requirements to the small arms of that time. Adoption in 1908. it lay the pointed bullet of [pozvoli]- Law to increase his combat of [kharakteri]- [stiki], and the nomenclature of [praktiche]- the [skikh] and auxiliary cartridges it was typical for [bolshin]- [stva] of the armies of that period. IMPERIALISTIC AND CIVIL The First World War introduced the Ra [dikalnye] correctives into [nomen]- to [klaturu] of live cartridges the pain [shinstva] of the countries of world. [Primene]- [nie] of military equipment, against to [toroy] usual bullets were mA [loeffektivny], it led to po- to the phenomenon of cartridges from [spetsial]- by bullets - they are armor-piercing by mi, which trace, armor-piercing tracing, they are igniting mi and so forth by the only country,

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 10[/color] [color=#0000FF]Trilinear verifying cartridge of model 1908 g., common form and the section[/color]

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 11[/color] [color=#0000FF]Trilinear cartridge with the incendiary bullet for the shooting at the airplanes, the model 1914 g.[/color]

the had at the beginning war special-I Alni ammunition of the rifle GO of caliber, there was Austria-Hungary, accepted for the armament SVO by it army in 1907-1908 yr. cartridge [s] by the armor-piercing bullet of № [KHKH] (Panzer- Patrone No. OF THE XX), in 1910. - pA throne with target-indicating PU the leu shape of 1910 g. (Übungs-Patrone M.10, Ü-Patrone) and in 1912. - pA throne with the target-indicating bullet the shape of 1912 g. (Übungs-Patrone Of m.12, Ü- Of patrone). To all rest of [uchast]- to the nick of world conflict with it went to develop and to assume for the armament the new cartridges already in the process of military operations. Russia was not exception. By the first of the special bullets, accepted for the armament [rossiy]- [skoy] army during first mi [rovoy], became igniting PU [lya] shape of 1914 g., intended, first of all, for the shooting at to balloons and to aircraft against nick. Russian igniting PU whether they appeared, in the certain steppe not, compromise, “the budget by the” solution since they [izgo]- they [tavlivalis] from [razsnaryazhennykh] the bullets shape of 1891 g. in the head of [cha]- to [sti] obtuse bullet drill shaft oblong hole of the dia-

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 12[/color] [color=#0000FF]cartridge with the armor-piercing bullet Of the [kutovogo]: 1 the case of the experimental cartridge shape of 1915 g. with the di- [mya] by black transverse strips on crusts to [puse], 2, 3- cartridges with the armor-piercing bullet shape of 1916 g. release Petersburg PZ, 4-6 - pA thrones with the armor-piercing bullet shape 1916 g. of [vypu]- of [ska] [Simbirskogo] PZ (it is 5th cartridge from [peresnarya]- by the [zhennoy] bullet and by the shortened case), 7 VA of [riant] of the bullet of early model with the conical to angle [bleniem] in the Donets, 8-11 - bullet shape of 1916 g. and it construction, 12- comparison of the ground parts of the early and late armor-piercing bullets[/color]

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 13[/color] [color=#0000FF]“The quality” of the [boevikh] cartridges of release 1917-1920 yr.[/color]

by the meter of 3.8 mm and with the depth of 24 mm. At 4/5 depths into the opening of the trans- [pressovyvalsya] is black smoky powder, above which [ustanavli]- be brought down metallic of the anvils kA and percussion cap. Bullets for [strel]- on the balloons they had an percussion cap, coming out from the shell. Bullets for the shooting at the airplanes of [ime]- whether the percussion cap, embedded into [oboloch]- to [ke]. Length of bullet with that embedded the knot [syulem] composed 29.2 mm, and weight - 10.39 g. cartridges with the igniting by bullets they were let out only in P [riod] of the First World War. Heads it was a deficiency in these bullets the increased danger of [srabatyva]- [niya] with the random impact or [uty]- [kanii] during the supply into the chamber. One of most important [trebova]- [niy] to the small arms of the per- the howl of World War there was SPO [sobnost] to strike it is armored purposes - tanks, the panels of instruments, infantry armors and so forth Russia for the first time it encountered the problem the defeat of the protected armor purposes even into the Russo-Japanese the howl well, when Japanese soldiers were they are sheltered after the gun or the bullets by meth panels or could IS to treat infantry armors. For dealing with such purposes la is released trial party pA thrones with the pointed mono- by [litnymi] bullets from the bronze, the times [rabotannymi] by Colonel [Ro]- [stovshchikovym] still in 1902. These the bullet with a mass of 10.35 g and with the initial with the speed of 724 m/s successfully the time infantry armors harvested. One to for the armament of army this pA hole

[color=#FF0000]
PICTURE 14[/color] [color=#0000FF]Marking on the cases of the trilinear cartridges: 1-16 - you launching Petersburg PZ of 1891-1918 yr. (7, is eighth passage from the fogs of [kirovki] by the depressed impression to the appearing impression, 10, 11, 12- absence of the code of the supplier of brass for 3 hours on these cases, possibly, designated, what for the cases was used brass of the production of brass- German-silver plant, [osno]- of tank with [PPZ], 13-15 - passage to the two-position of SI to [stemu] of marking (year of release and producer), 16 cart it is possible, in 1918. cases has already been produced on The [simbirskom] PZ), 17-25 - release [Luganskogo] PZ 1895-1919 yr. (19, 20- passage from the marking as the depressed impression on I come out [shchiy] impression, 20, 21 - the change of the style of writing the code produce calving L for the difference from the cases, released BY [PPZ] with the code work of driver P, 23, 24 - passage to the two-position system marking), 26-34 - release Tula PZ of 1892-1920 yr. (29 passage to the two-position system of marking, 31 - in 1919. in the marking was added the block of [proizvod]- of [stva] of case), 35-38 - release [Simbirskogo] PZ 1919-1920 yr., 39-40 - release of Podolskiy PZ of 1920 g., 41- the release of voluntary plant 1919 g., 42-47 - [nestan]- [dartnaya] marking on the cases [Luganskogo] PZ of period 1898 - 1912 yr.: to 6 hours are substituted arabic numerals, instead of the camp of [dartnykh] roman numerals from the I to III, designating period [vypu]- of [ska] case. Possibly, arabic numerals on the cases [LPZ] about [znachali] the nonstandard alloy of sleeve brass or the experimental versions of the technology of the production of cases, 48-52 - stamp [rovka] on the cases of trilinear cartridges, consisting of the letters R or F and the arabic numerals. Possibly, this marking on rushed to the experimental cartridges or the cases (52- marking F 38 it was substituted above the standard marking Of [f]92 R OF THE III)[/color]

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 15–SOLDIERS IN FORMATION–DOES NOT SEEM TO BE TRANLATED[/color]

[color=#FF0000]PICTURE 16–CLUMP OF CARTRIDGES–DOES NOT SEEM TO BE TRANLATED[/color]

throne so was not accepted. New armor-piercing cartridge Russian the are of [miya] obtained only in 1916. po- to [sle] of the adoption “[shchitoboynoy]” bullet designed by captain [Kutovy]. The [poluobolochechnaya] bullet shape of 1916 g. had a length of 33.84 mm and a mass 12.0 g. it consisted of German silver howl of shell, steel of [ostroko]- of [nechnogo] core with the conical housing, tombac jacket and soft tombac [vershinki], which creates at the moment of impact on purpose the effect “of adhesion”. PA throne was equipped with tubular pore- [khom] of the type “du Pont”. By still some interesting about [duktom] by the first the world howl they were diverse of the guns grenades, actively [primenyav]- of [shiesya] all belligerent mi. in Russia were accepted time the -shaped systems of such grenades of the construction Of [dyakonova], [Rdutlov]- of [skogo], [Karnaukhova]- Pavlovsky Segal and other for the throwing of the guns of grenades adapted [spetsial]- ache the blank cartridge, which consists of the case, the charge of the rifle powder with a weight of 2.9 g and wad from the crusts of [kovoy] plug. The live cartridge shape of 1908 g. in the time of war it did not suffer what or serious changes. For strengthening the fixation of bullet into [dul]- C of case [PPZ] and [TPZ] they again introduced punching at three points, and [nekoto]- [rye] assembly lines [LPZ] began to use the 8- segmental pressing the edge of cartridge neck. As a w Russia, [ispytyvav]- [shaya] constant “cartridge GO of [lod]”, armed by small arms of the most diverse calibers and carrying constant enormous losses, was not into [sosto]- of [yanii] develop and accept that I forge the wide nomenclature of [spe]- of [tsialnykh] ammunition as the are of [mii] of England, France, Germany and Austria-Hungary. Nevertheless, the rule of combat and [vspomogatel]- of the cartridges of Russian army that GO of period successfully solved pain the [shuyu] aspect of the rifle tasks. Sous by the [shchestvennym] deficiency the Russian the [skoy] nomenclature of ammunition should be counted only the absence of any cartridge [s] I locate cabbage soups by bullet. During the Civil War the developments of the new models combat supplies were ended, and pA throne production lost the substantial part of its [moshch]- of [nostey]. Of two fiscal plants [PPZ] was evacuated [prekra]- of [til] the production of cartridges in 1918 ; A [LPZ] constantly passed from hand to hand. Also equipment component [LPZ] was exported into Taganrog for organizing the new ammunition factory for the needs of white army, po- shone brightly name “[Dobrovol]- [cheskiy]”. However, the quality of the cartridges of the production [TPZ] is strong of [snizi]- moose because of the poor quality raw material and the worn-out equipment, and new Podolskiy and [Simbirskiy] plants only were introduced into ex- [pluatatsiyu


7.62x54R Kutovoi, partizan, 7n13 & type BT90
#5

Vlad–I learned something today. I did not know that Babelfish would work on PDF’s.


#6

I copied’n’pasted article pages into Babelfish first.


#7

I have high-lighted the captions to the pictures in Vlads Babelfish translation above in [color=#FF0000]Red[/color] and [color=#0000FF]Blue[/color] to make it easier to find that information.


#8

I contacted one of the authors, he is actually in the process of translating the article into English. he is also writing another article. It will take some time. But you, the reader, will have an English version in the future.