ID on some shotshells / Pinfire shells

hello to all.
Any help and information on the following shotshells would be highly appreciated.

No 1 pin fire with maltese cross. When and by who??
No 2 pin fire made by Gavard & Cie from paris. But When?? This is a wound steel case and I think is a very good item.
No 4 Saxonia?? Is this one from the German Saxonia factory??
No 5 MK kevanlari ? where was this one made and when? I think it is somewhere east european or even from asia, but perhaps somebody can tell me more.
No 6 VD *** know nothing on this one.

many regards René Polman


Turkish for the MK as a wild guess?

G Bte : Gavard
Saxonia Patronenfabrick, Köln
VD : Jacques Albert, Bourg les Valence


Hi Pete,

That was my first thought also, now I am only searching for documetated proof of it.

Hi JP,

Thanks for the info, specially about the VD.

Many regards rené

The name Sterling is known from UK cartridges and the Saxonia could be from Lignose, MWS or NDMF also.