I checked my cartridges and I have one that looks the same and is the same dimensions, so is probably the same.
It does not match the looks and dimensions of any of mine with headstamps though. The closest design (when taking into consideration bullet shape, and beveled base, etc) would be one by V. F. M. & Co. It is nearly identical except for a slightly shorter case. But this does not necessarily mean there is any relation between them.
I know absolutely nothing about Japanese production of any cartridges so I could not tell you anything about their possible production of pinfires.
However, here is a Lefaucheux 1854 and cartridges (which are not the same cartridges as yours) that was excavated on a man made island there, Dejima.