In Both of above photos ,is stamed just 7.62.
How do we can detect the length of case?
At first picture it is a x54 cartridge. We can see Б-32 (B-32) marking what means the type of bullet. B-32 was used only in 7.62x54.
But 7.62 39 has tracer type too
May be it is 7.6239
B-32 is AP bullet
At 2 picture there is T-46 thats a tracer bullet also for x54
For 7.62x39 there are markings «7.62 обр.43» thats means 7.62 model 1943, and different types of bullets.
Surprisingly, but soviet army did not used designations like 7.62x54 or 7.62x39.
Were used disignations like “7.62 rifle cartridge”, “ 7.62 assault rifle cartridge” and “7.62 pistol cartridge”
Here some pictures of soviet/russian markings
The Russian military does not use case length in the identification of its small arms cartridges. You simply have to know that B-32 of your first photo is a (what we call) 7.62x54R. Our Western names like 7.62x54R or 7.62x25 Tokarev are not used by them.
and you can easely see that by the numbers in the box.
The can says 440, which gives 880 if the are packed in wooden crates ( 2 cans of 440 each)
7,62x39 is packed by 660 in a can, or 1320 in a wooden crate.
Newer packings of them are also 700 per can and 1400 per wooden crate.
Easely to distinguish from the 440 (880) for the longer x54R cartridges.
Please do not forget that the designation B-32 is also used with 12.7x108 and 14.5x114.
As Forensic said, the quantity given is a good indicator and also the propellant designation which is “VT” for “vintovochnyy” (rifle).
So as everyone said: 7.62x54R
Vintovka is “rifle”;
Vintovochny is “for or of rifle”
API of the 7,62x39 is designated as 7,62 БЗ (BZ) , tracer is 7,62 Т-45
Also, Black over Red is an API loading, that is not found on the 7.62x39 cartridge.
It is a 7.62x54r loading.