Russian 9 x 18 mm Makarov proof loads

I need some help. Usually, I welcome educated conjecture regarding a general topic, as it is often correct, and regardless, many times leads to further, useful research that was not originally thought of. However, the following are specific questions and I need specific answers, hopefully answers that are known to the respondent thru research. I could find little or nothing on the topic.

How are Russian (USSR) military Makarov 9 x 18 mm proof cartridges identified as such? Colored tip? Color of primer and case-mouth seals? Other markings or colorations such as plated or blackened case, etc.?

What is the chamber pressure of the Russian 9 x 18 mm Proof Load, preferably expressed in MPa or in PSI?

What was the normal proofing procedure; was every pistol proofed, or was it simply one out of a specific number (one out of three, one out of five, etc.) that were proofed. How many proof loads were fired in each pistol proofed (normally it is one or two).

Was there any specific marking applied to the pistols to show they had gone thru proof?

Any help will be appreciated.

Hi John!
I’m sorry for delay with answer but from what I know there was no Soviet Proof loading of 9x18 cartridges. No mentions in known to me sources. I know only what in Design Bureau to tests chambers used normal cartridges heated by flame up to +50C what caused higher pressure on shot.
The only known to me pistol/revolver proof cartridges are (and all of them come from Modern Russian not from USSR):
• 9x21 with red tip
• 9x21 with blue tip
• 9x19 roof (no painting bud intended to be yellow)
• SP-4 yellow tip
• 12.3 revolver civilian proof loading
That is all what I can say to you about Russian/soviet pistol proofs.

Yuri - there are a lot of ways to make a cartridge with higher than normal pressure, but I had not heard of heating the cartridge before to do it purposely. Of course, why not? We learn all the time growing up with guns not to leave ammunition laying about in direct and stifling-hot sunshine, and then shooting it, as it can affect the pressures upward, sometimes dramatically.

This is excellent information for me. Thank you so much, my friend. I am sorry if I seemed impatient for a reply. A friend, quite expert in the ballistics of the Makarov cartridge, has been discussing the entire spectrum of pressure questions concerning this cartridge with me, and he is close to formulating some notes on it.

I will pass on what you had to say.

Since the Russian influence was certainly there, this may be the answer as well to the East German question, basically of why we hear or see nothing or proof loads other than the very late-date Hochdruck cartridges, not actually marked “Beschusspatrone,” but rather simply as high pressure rounds. Many of us assumed that meant proof loads, but I suppose that is not necessarily an accurate assumption.