South African MONAD cartridges, info needed


Fellow collectors,

I’m compiling an article about French THV cartridges of which I did find enough information to make a story. However, I found out that my story is not complete without adding something about the MONAD cartridges too. I have 9 mm, 5,56 mm and 7,62 x 51 MONAD rounds in my collection (I’m still lacking the both 7,62 x 39 versions). My problem is that there is not much information around concerning this ammo, so any information is most appreciated.

For instance, was it solely made by the PMP or was the NGA involved with its production? For how long was it in production, I’ve only seen headstamps from the early 1990s? Any technical information someone can provide?

I count on you guys out there to help me out of this agonizing situation of NOT knowing everything… :)



If you use the search feature on this forum and search for the words THV or Monad, you will find some good threads and photos.

Notable are these:

I also sent you an email with info.


Mika - I tried to send you an email to your address shown on the forum, but it did not work, can you P.M. me your email address?


Matt - Thanks for the links to the threads, but unfortunately there were not that much info about the MONAD. BTW: I pm’ed you my email address.


The South African “Monad” cartridge was discussed in a IAA Forum thread beginning July 20th, 2009, titled “Unknown 9 mm.”

It is also covered well in a Monograph from the South African Cartridge Collector’s Association entitled simply 9 mm Parabellum (this seems to have been part of a much bigger work on RSA cartridges since the pages numbers show Pages 168 to 218, but all I have is the 9 mm portion).

Much of the below was taken directly from the above work, and from Will Reuter’s fine article on the Monad Story.

 The Monad cartridges were designed by Andre Van Dyk, while he was working at PMP (Pretoria Metal Pressings).  All of the Military/Police types of his designs, The Monad projectiles,

were produced at PMP and appear in cases with their headstamps, primarily of the military type and with at least the exception of one made for Taiwan, discussed later. Later designs very much related, although different in bullet construction, were made after Van Dyk left PMP and became a principal in the New Generation Ammunition Co. in 1992.

The requirements of the original Monad bullets were to penetrate targets such as steel, wood and glass but still have a sever wounding effect after penetration. Short range with high wounding potential. Deflection was to be minimal. Accuracy was to be good while staying within the requirements of the Hague Convention of 1899. Applications for this ammunition include hostage situations, riot control, urban crime prevention, in crwoded situations where a selected target is to be eliminated, in situations where the target is hidden behind cover such as a verhicle and moving vehicle immobilization, etc. The Monad design was based on the French Tres Haut Vitesse cartridge, heavily modified.

 Specifications:  Bullet is made of copper, with a weight of 3.2 to 3.5 g (grams).  Velocity is about 575 m/s with a chamber pressure of 270 Mpa.  Accuracy is less than 76 mm at 25 m.  Most come with blue tips but the customer can specify the color.

 Packaging:  25 rounds per box, 16 boxes per PVC bag and 8 bags per crate.

One of the earlier types has a W-W headstamp, but with its very small headstamp print, the headstamp is obviously spurious,spurious, and now known to be made in South Africa by PMP, and certainly not made by Winchester. There is one with the headstamp “NPA 67,” pictured along with its box, made for the Taiwan Procurement Agency (police).

The Monad types use a projectile with hollow base. One of the major differences of the later designs made by New Generation are that they have a solid, flat base projectile. Most of those with red plastic tips, and are loaded in any brass available, including IMI and Norma. The round we have with Norma headstamp has a black tip. Some of the early ones in RSA military-style headstamps, true Monad types, have no plastic cap at all. Other Monad types have a blue plastic tip. Many colors have been made experimentally, and the NPA-headstamped Monad round at hand has a cream-colored tip.

Also present in our own collection are three rounds with nickeled-brass cases. One with an NGA headstamp has a red plastic cap, but another nickeled-case version with IMI headstamp has a cap of black plastic, as does another nickeled-case round with PMP commercial headstamp. While one round pictured in the monograph with headstamp “NPA 97” has a blue cap, our own round with this headstamp has a cream-colored cap, and is definitely a Monad.

Bullet ogives run from those with quite pointed plastic noses through some with a very blunt, round nose ogive. Most of the rounds have brass primer cups, but several, including two of those with nickeled cases have nickeled primer cups.

Early NGA Technical bulletins refer to their projectiles as “The liminator Bullet,” but later literature from that company calls it “The Sentry Bullet,” perhaps a name change made on the basis of political correctness. Black-plastic bullet tips were also eliminated, reportedly for the same reason. Their literature refers to tests made at New Generation Pty Ltd. (up to 1994 call “New Generation Ammunition cc”).

Regarding the use of the plastic cap, NGA literature indicates that it is only there to improve feeding in self-loading firearms, and the facilitation of fast reloading of revolvers either by hand or with speedloaders. They do not seem to make any claims for actual improvement in exterior or wound ballistics attributed to this cap.

In the technical bulletins, the powder shown used in rounds shown within their ballistics tables are Powder No. 200, made by Somchen RSA.

New Generation ammunition has been found in 50-round plastic boxes, although other packaging is likely to have been used as well.

This is a summary of about all the information I have. It is not in-depth coverage of the dozens of variations known in the Monad and the New Generation Sentry cartridges. It is simply a brief overview in an attempt to provide those with a casual interest in this subject with some idea of these rounds. We have not pictured them, as a previous thread provides those interested with pictures of many of the variations of Monad and New Generation types.

We apologize for any confusion that the original form of this effort probably caused. We also thank Jon for a copy of the article that allowed us to make many corrections to our original answer.

NOTE: Heavily edited from the original answer to correct and complete some information, and to correct the usual typographical errors that plague my quickly type answers these days.


Firstly, the other answers to your question came while I was researching and typing my own answer. There were no answers when I began, so I apologize if anything in my answer was repetitious.

When I was putting away my “New Generation” file, I noticed that it contained a folded up “chart,” which is actually simply an art-deco advertising poster with little real information. However, at the bottom, the chart makes the claim “Manufactured by NGA and distributed to approved dealers.” This is a definitive statement, unequivocal in its content, the only such statement of manufacture I could find, so we have to assume, I would guess, that NGA made at least some of their ammunition, if not all of this type.


Mika, if you PM me an email address I will forward a PDF I have that is entitled “The MONAD Story”.
I would be happy to do the same for any interested party. It is an excellent piece by Will Reuter.



I thought I had this, but could not find it. I may contact you later for a copy of this. I have three different files this could be in, and have only checked one of them so far, as have been really busy this morning.


John, no worries, I’ll send it tomorrow. Just discovered I have it on my school computer desktop, not the laptop.


Thank you all for your precious help, every fragment of information is really helpful. Jon, I already got Will Reuter’s excellent text from Matt. It’s really good piece of information but I’m still puzzled with the rifle caliber MONADs… Does anyone know if they were manufactured as long as the 9 mm variant. It seems that 9 mm MONAD was produced well into the 2000s? The NGA’s Eliminator is however another story, but did NGA really make MONADs?


Monad’s were only ever made by PMP.
The NGA bullets (originally called Eliminators and black in colour were politically incorrect & were changed to red, white or blue caps & called Sentry bullets) were made by NGA, initially on a lot of different brass, later using their own brass. Still in business.


Sorry, I forgot to reply to the production periods - the 9x19 Parabellums would still be made for you if you ordered them. The rifle calibres were made to fill a percieved need at the time (late 1980’s when there was a lot of political unrest in the country). The 7.62x51 had the shortest life span as the R1 rifle (a licensed copy of the FN FAL) was phased out, to be replace by the R4, a Galil variation in 5.56x45. I do not think that any of the rifle calibres were made after the mid 1990’s.



Am off to the ECRA meeting, but have some interesting Monad bullets in 9x19mm including an aluminum bullet and a tracer. Will make pics when I get back.

Others “messed” with THV bullets. They were made by Iraq for example. I have one that was apparently made in Finland for testing.

Wasn’t there a guy/company (perhaps A-Kamp or someone similar) who made Monad style bullets but with a rounded shoulder instead of the sharp shoulder of the Monad and the THV? It was on an earlier thread but don’t have time to look up.




Will - Thank you for clarifying the MONAD time line.

Lew - Sako did some experimenting with THV bullets in the late 1980s, at least 9 mm Parabellum, .38 Special and .357 are known.


Due to uncomplete information at hand, my original answer on this thread was incomplete and contained some errors, some confusion, and some incomplete answers left more as questions on my part. I was going to ask the webmasters to delete my entire answer.

One of the the great strengths of this Forum is its ability, solely possible thru the fantastic cooperation of its contributors, to place important documentation into the hands of serious researchers in a very short time. This is, though, somewhat of a two-edged sword, as often this documentation is too long to be put onto the Forum and so is sent directly to the most interested parties, leaving those with just a peripheral interest without any real answers, on the Forum thread, to the questions originally asked by others.

For this reason, and armed with the fine article by Will Reuter on the question at hand, graciously supplied to me and others by Jonny, I have decided to attempt to edit my original answer to remove outright errors and answer some of the questions I was ambiguous about, rather than have the original effort completely exorcised from the thread. It will not be a complete answer, but should, if I can get it right for a change, provide those members who do not have any archived information on this ammunition other than the referenced previous threads on it, some answers to the original question.


John - You are right, the forum works best when all users can see at least the most significant pieces of information while the details can be emailed or P.M’ed to the most willing-to-know parties. I really appreciate you wanted to edit your original answer to my question which, actually, did provide me some valuable information in its original form as well. Thank you for your great contribution to this forum.


Mika - Thanks for your kind words. We all contribute what we can, and we all build on the help and knowledge of others. I was happy to modify my text especially in light of the fact that it had errors, questions I was later able to answer, etc. In this case, the modifications were only possible because Will Reuter wrote such a good paper on these, and Jonny was kind enough to provide me with a copy of it. Like many of the entries on this Forum, a Joint Effort!