I can only speak to the question of Lugansk"s production of 9 x 18 Makarov. After the Makarov Pistol (PM) was officially adopted in 1951, with production beginning in 1953, Lugansk was the first company to serially produce the 9 x 18 mm Cartridge. They began in 1953, producing brass-cased rounds in 1953, 1954,and 1955 and steel-cased rounds in 1955 and 1956. These all had letter-code dates from the Soviet System, with the Cyrillic versions of D, E, I, K. There are two forms of the letter “E” on headstamps, and Letter “I” is found on both brass and steel cases, for a total of six known variants in ordinary ball. There are a couple of dummy variants known as well. The factory designator on all of these rounds is “270.”
In 1956 production of the Makarov cartridge was transferred to Yuryusan, using the factory designator code “38.” The first Yuryusan cartridges also have the letter-coded date “K” representing 1956. From at least 1957 on, the dates were recorded on the headstamps in uncoded numerals. They produced the round, probably every year, until 1989.
After the breakup of the USSR and independence for Ukraine, Lugansk resumed production of the 9 x 18 mm Makarov cartridge, probably in the year 1994 - that is the earliest post-independence date I have seen on this caliber ammunition, at least. Every year-date is known, it seems, until 2008. I had thought, until this thread, that the “270” code was to continue on military cartridges while the new commercial production would have the Cyrillic version of “LCW” on it (Lugansk Cartridge Works). However, that question, asked previously on this thread, remains unanswered. Lugansk literature actually shows an “LCW” headstamp in the Western alphabet, although I have not heard of any cartridge so-mared yet. It would make sense, however, for export ammunition to be marked that way. It would be nice to know if any 270-coded 9 x 18s are actually known from the year 2008 or later, and the exact year that the “TCW” (Cyriilic) headstamp first appeared.