The ban on the possesion of Military Bore (aka Calibre) Firearms in India and The Sudan began soon after the Liberation of Khartoum ( Siege of Omdurman, 1898) along with the continuing Chitral campaign in the North West Frontier provinces of India (now Pakistan).
It was aimed mainly at .577 and .450 calibre weapons, as well as the newer .303 rifles.
The line of thought was as follows…if we ban the Barrel Bore(calibre) then the components also won’t be available for loading or reloading ammo for stolen Military weapons ( ?ever heard of "cast your own??); also loaded ammo from civilian sources in Military dimensions would also not be readily available…
So the British Gun trade, by 1907 (the cut-off date for India) developed the Lee Enfield Sporting rifle in 8x50R Mannlicher, and Double rifles in .465 Express, 450/400 Express, and for the realy “big Boys” the 577/500 Rewa etc.
It seems strange that they only “banned” British calibres ( as the use of the Austro-Hungarian 8x50R shows)… shows how stupid attempts at British gun control have always been…
The natives of the tribal areas continued making their own ammo and rifles, and also supplying a flourishing Black market trade into greater India.
This has continued on into Indian Independance, with the centre-fire Legitimate calibre being “.315 Indian” (aka 8x50R) and limited Pistol/revolver calibres based on the old .32 and .38 cartridges of the early 1900s.
Pakistan has a much more liberal approach, given that the KhyberPass area falls within Pakistan, of allowing free rein in the tribal areas, with moderate restrictions elsewhere in the country.— ever tried to separate a Hill tribesman from his guns ??----“over my dead body”.
regards, Doc AV
(PS, I have a very nice BSA “India Trade” Lee Enfield Rifle in 8x50R, which actually came from India in the 1980s).