I have been doing a little research about these cartridges and what the different colors mean.
I looked around trying to find samples of the boxes and put together a general idea of what some of them were for and finally found a pretty good conclusion to my hypothesis from Ray Giles, author of One Hundred Years of Winchester Cartridge Boxes.
For anyone who cares, here is what the colors mean.
[li]Red/Faded Red/Pink: Smokeless (The really dark Red ones are earlier dated. Ones with tin plated head are proof loads)
[li]Blue: Black Powder (These are not waterproofed like the others, as evident by the swelling.)
[li]Green: Litesmoke (A loading card in the Winchester ballistics lab files shows these use Litesmoke, which is similar to Lesmok)
[li]Purple: Not sure. Maybe same as Blue.
[li]Tan: Post-War Smokeless, Mostly for Export
[li]Yellow: Probably an Early Experimental - They used Repeater grade paper[/li][/ul]
I would love to see any additional variations of these and any additional information and any pictures of the boxes for the different varieties!
Here is the common box for the Red smokeless ones:
And here is a little info on one of the guns that these cartridges were made for: